Bilateral Stimulation Is Effective for OCD That Doesn't Respond to Medications, Says New Guideline in Neurosurgery
Available research evidence supports the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) who don't respond to other treatments, concludes a review in the October issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS). The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.
Based on evidence, two specific bilateral DBS techniques are recommended for treatment of carefully selected patients with OCD, according to a new clinical practice guideline endorsed by the CNS and the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. While calling for further research in key areas, Dr. Clement Hamani of Toronto Western Hospital and coauthors emphasize that patients with OCD symptoms that don't respond to other treatments should continue to have access to DBS.
Deep Brain Stimulation for OCD—What's the Evidence?
Dr. Hamani led a multispecialty expert group in performing a systematic review of research on the effectiveness of DBS for OCD. Deep brain stimulation—placement of electrodes in specific areas of the brain, followed by electrical stimulation of those areas—has become an important treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.
Although many patients with OCD respond well to medications and/or psychotherapy, 40 to 60 percent continue to experience symptoms despite treatment. Over the past decade, a growing number of reports have suggested that DBS may be an effective alternative in these "medically refractory" cases.
Dr. Hamani and colleagues were tasked with analyzing the supporting evidence and developing an initial clinical practice guideline for the use of DBS for patients with OCD. The review and guideline development process was sponsored by the American Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery and the CNS. Out of more than 350 papers, the reviewers identified seven high-quality studies evaluating DBS for OCD.
Based on that evidence, they conclude that bilateral stimulation (on both sides of the brain) of two brain "targets"—areas called the subthalamic nucleus and the nucleus accumbens—can be regarded as effective treatments for OCD. In controlled clinical trials, both techniques improved OCD symptoms by around 30 percent on a standard rating scale.
While Research Proceeds, well-selected treatment-resistant severe OCD Patients Should Have Access to DBS
That evidence forms the basis for a clinical guideline stating that bilateral DBS is a "reasonable therapeutic option" for patients with severe OCD that does not respond to other treatments. The guideline also notes that there is "insufficient evidence" supporting the use of any type of unilateral DBS target (one side of the brain) for OCD.
The review highlights the difficulties of studying the effectiveness of DBS for OCD—because most patients respond to medical treatment, studies of this highly specialized treatment typically include only small numbers of patients. Dr. Hamani and coauthors identify some priorities for future research: particularly to identify the most effective brain targets and the subgroups of patients most likely to benefit.
Despite the limited evidence base, DBS therapy for OCD has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration under a humanitarian device exemption. Dr. Hamani and coauthors note that various safeguards are in place to ensure appropriate use, and prevent overuse, of DBS for OCD.
While research continues, they believe that functional neurosurgeons should continue to work with other specialists to ensure that patients with severe, medically refractory OCD continue to have access to potentially beneficial DBS therapy.
Click here to read "Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline Sponsored by the American Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) and Endorsed by the CNS and American Association of Neurological Surgeons."
Neurosurgery, the Official Journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons, is your most complete window to the contemporary field of neurosurgery. Members of the Congress and non-member subscribers receive 3,000 pages per year packed with the very latest science, technology, and medicine, not to mention full-text online access to the world's most complete, up-to-the-minute neurosurgery resource. For professionals aware of the rapid pace of developments in the field, Neurosurgery is nothing short of indispensable.
About Wolters Kluwer Health
Wolters Kluwer Health is a leading global provider of information, business intelligence and point-of-care solutions for the healthcare industry. Serving more than 150 countries worldwide, clinicians rely on Wolters Kluwer Health's market leading information-enabled tools and software solutions throughout their professional careers from training to research to practice. Major brands include Health Language ®, Lexicomp ®, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Medicom®, Medi-Span ®, Medknow, Ovid ®, Pharmacy OneSource®, ProVation ® Medical and UpToDate ®.
Wolters Kluwer Health is part of Wolters Kluwer, a market-leading global information services company. Wolters Kluwer had 2013 annual revenues of €3.6 billion ($4.7 billion), employs approximately 19,000 people worldwide, and maintains operations in over 40 countries across Europe, North America, Asia Pacific, and Latin America. Wolters Kluwer is headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn, the Netherlands. Its shares are quoted on Euronext Amsterdam (WKL) and are included in the AEX and Euronext 100 indices. Wolters Kluwer has a sponsored Level 1 American Depositary Receipt program. The ADRs are traded on the over-the-counter market in the U.S. (WTKWY).
Follow our official Twitter handle: @WKHealth.